Рефераты по иностранным языкам

Education in Russia - Образование в России

10 Ноября 2012, доклад

In Russia children begin going to school at the age of seven. First they study at the elementary school. It lasts three or four years. At the elementary school children get the elementary education, they learn to read, write and count.

Education in the Philippines: Primary Education

11 Декабря 2013, контрольная работа

Primary school education in the Philippines spans 6 years in duration and is compulsory for all students. This level of education is divided into a four-year primary cycle and a two-year intermediate cycle. In the country's public schools, Filipino children generally begin school at age 6 or 7; however, private schools typically start a year earlier and operate a seven-year curriculum rather than a six-year curriculum. 7

At the conclusion of each school year, students are promoted from one grade level to the next, assuming they meet the achievement standards set for that particular grade. Students are rated in every subject four times during the school year. A cumulative points system is typically used as the basis for promotion. To pass a grade, students must earn at least 75 points out of 100, or seventy-five percent. 8

Educational significance of social nets

22 Ноября 2015, курсовая работа

Different techniques are suggested to be used in order to help children find language classes more interesting.
The object of the research: the process of foreign language teaching and learning
The subject of the research: different social networks for learning English
The goal of the research: to identify the most effective ways of learning English through social networks depending on the purposes
The objectives of the research:
• to study goals and significance of learning English using social networks
• to define strategies and principles for learning English through new method of using social networks
• to study

El conocimiento de la etiqueta - la admision en el mundo de los negocios

25 Апреля 2012, реферат

En todos los tiempos las personas se referían de formas diferentes a la etiqueta. El objeto del artículo es ver su importancia en el mundo de negocios. Esta relación dependía y depende de la educación (la socialización moral), la instrucción ética y las normas, que suponen el deseo de la relación moral a él por parte de los circunstantes y el deseo así como referirse es moral a las personas

Electronic contracts

10 Февраля 2014, реферат

The advent of information technology has given the ability to companies for making the process of contracting more easily and less costly. Moreover, information technology allow for the establishment of contracts at lower costs, in a shorter time and without geographical restrictions. This development has lead to the emergence of the field of electronic contracting. I`ve chosen this them since nowadays electronic contracting becomes more and more popular and useful. And also I would like to have a practice with this issue in the future.

Employee motivation in HR management

06 Мая 2013, реферат

How to recruit, retain, reward, and motivate staff regularly tops your interest list.
Doing these well is the most important strategic role of the manager or the Human Resources professional. In what other capacity can you contribute more to the success of your organization than in encouraging employee involvement and employee engagement? Employee involvement and employee engagement matter to your organization's success.


01 Апреля 2013, доклад

United States Labor Force Participation Rate from 1948 to 2011 by gender. Men are represented in light blue, women in pink, and the total in black.
There are approximately 154.4 million employed individuals in the US. Government is the largest employment sector with 22 million.[81] Small businesses are the largest employer in the country representing 53% of US workers.[74] The second largest share of employment belongs to large businesses that employ 38% of the US workforce.[74]

Engine cooling system

07 Мая 2015, контрольная работа

The temperature of the gas in the cylinders of the engine reaches operating 1800-2000 degrees.Only part of the heat released was converted into useful work.The remaining part is given to the environment cooling system, lubrication system and outer surfaces of the engine.
The excessive increase in the temperature of the engine leads to burnout lubrication, disruption of normal gaps between its parts, resulting in a sharp increase in their wear.There is a risk of jamming and jamming.

English customs and traditions

28 Мая 2015, реферат

No discussion on the English way of life, or indeed anything to do with England, is possible without taking into consideration such important aspects of the English character as their faithfulness to traditions, or as some people prefer to call this trait, conservatism.
We can start with a well known fact that in English cars the steering wheel is on the right and they drive on the left. So when you rent a car in England do not forget to take out good insurance.

English Cuisine

13 Декабря 2013, реферат

English cuisine, native to England, is shaped by the temperate climate, geography and history of the country. Apart from the traditional food that is made with local ingredients, English cuisine consists of ingredients imported from other countries as well, like North America, China and India. The traditional food of the country is flavored strongly. The flavor of the recipes has also been influenced by post-war immigration. Read on to explore some more interesting information on the cuisine of England.

English Functional Styles

27 Ноября 2013, контрольная работа

Any language manifests various functional styles, and English is not an exception. Styles are the ways thoughts are expressed in human communication. One and the same thing can be expressed in different styles, as, for example the same event may be spoken about in different ways:
1. “An old man died”;
2. “The aged man passed away”;
3. “The old bean kicked the bucket”.

English history

20 Декабря 2010, курсовая работа

1. What are the most specific features of Celtic religious beliefs?
2. What features of material culture did the Romans introduce in Britannia?
4. What kind of houses and settlements did Anglo-Saxons have?
6How did it happen that Christianity came Britain in two forms?
12)What can you tell about Old English and Anglo-Saxon literature?

English idioms and their Russian equiavalents

09 Ноября 2013, дипломная работа

Idiom is a phrase or expression whose total meaning differs from the meaning of the individual words. For example, to blow one’s top (get angry) and behind the eight ball (in trouble) are English- language idioms. Idioms come from language and generally cannot be translated literally (word for word). Foreign language students must learn them just as they would learn vocabulary words.

English language outside UK

17 Января 2013, реферат

English is part of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of languages. By year 1000, the English language consisted of approximately 40 000 words. Nowadays, the number has grown to more than 500 000. If we calculate the average of words created per century, this comes to 46 000. A great number of words found in the English vocabulary was borrowed from Latin, French, Low German, and the Scandinavian languages. We also know that some periods were more fertile than others: invasions, contact with other cultures, inventions, technological progress, music, fashion are some of the factors which have helped to enrich the language.

English literature in the nineteenth century

24 Апреля 2013, доклад

Nineteenth century English literature is remarkable both for high artistic achievement and for variety. The greatest literary movement of its earlier period was that of romanticism. It was born in the atmosphere of the violent economic and political turmoil that marked the last decades of the 18th and the first decades of the 19th century. The outburst of political activity brought on by the Great French Revolution of 1789, the bitter wars with Napoleon's France that ravaged Europe for almost 25 years were the dominant political forces at work. The hardships of the industrial and agrarian revolution whose joint effect was a gradual change of all aspects of social life in England made the situation rife with class hatred.

English pronunciation in the USA

10 Марта 2014, реферат

The complexity of English pronunciation has several aspects. The way the English word is pronounced, often does not correspond to the way it is written. Despite the fact that in the English alphabet of 26 letters and sounds in the English language is almost two times higher. Some English words have the same spelling but are pronounced differently depending on the context, some words can be pronounced exactly the same, but have very different meanings and are spelled differently. Furthermore writing the English word does not tell you how the word should be pronounced. For many English words, you just have to know how the word is spelled and pronounced. Although in English and there are certain rules of reading, exceptions to them much more. That is why the dictionaries to every English word is always a transcription, which tries to identify how the word is pronounced.

English Renaissance Theatre

05 Мая 2013, реферат

English Renaissance theatre, also known as early modern English theatre, refers to the theatre of England, largely based in London, which occurred in 1567, when the first English theatre 'The Red Lion' was opened; and the closure of the theatres in 1642. It includes the drama of William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe and many other famous playwrights.
English Renaissance theatre is sometimes called "Elizabethan theatre”. The term "Elizabethan theatre", however, covers only the plays written and performed publicly in England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth (1558–1603).

English-Speaking Countries: The USA and the Great Britain

23 Марта 2013, доклад

As far as we know, there are a lot of English-speaking countries in our world. They are the Great Britain,the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zeland and others. Every country has its own history, own native language and official language.
English is major international language for communication is such areas as science technology, business and mass entertainment. Therefore to know English is necessary for every educated person. I would like to learn about English-speaking countries more. That is why I explore two these countries.

Environment Water of Ukraine

14 Мая 2015, реферат

Water is part of the biosphere all organisms, including those of the human body. In it she plays the role of a structural component, solvent and carrier of nutrients by the biochemical processes of heat exchange regulator with the environment. The availability of water depends on the livelihoods of all living organisms. Water regulates the planet's climate, providing economic and industrial activities of people.

Environmental protection is the main problem facing humanity nowadays

19 Марта 2014, реферат

Ten years ago the word 'ecology' hardly meant anything for the majority of people, but today we can't help bearing it in our minds. It has happened because of the growing effect of the rapid industrial development of the natural world which has negative features of its own. As a matter of fact the state of environment has greatly worsened of late.

Essay about market structure

23 Июня 2013, сочинение

Modern economics is based on market structures. When we talk about market structure we mean the way companies compete with each other in a particular market.
There are two market structures in the real economics - perfect competition and imperfect competition. Perfect competition describes a market structure where the companies have less control over price than the consumers. There must be a lot of small companies which provide perfect substitutes, have complete information and access to resources. Also, there must not be any barriers to enter the market. It is hard to follow these conditions. That’s why we have the second type of market structure which is called imperfect competition.

Essentials of modern diplomacy

29 Апреля 2014, реферат

Traditional diplomacy is practised as the art and craft of communicating and interchanging among states acting through their representatives (diplomats) in the national interest (be it political, economic, scientific, social or other) by peaceful means. These means do not exclude the use of (political or economic) pressure (short of war) which is defined as coercive diplomacy. Raymond Aron already distinguished between “L’art de convaincre” and “L’art de contraindre”.1
The difference between diplomacy and foreign policy is related to that of instruments (of execution) and of formulation and contents of policy. Diplo- macy as a method deals with the articulation of foreign policy. It is about the means, not the ends, of foreign policy. Diplomacy thus serves as an instrument of implementing foreign policy. International relations on the other hand is the social science of analysing foreign policy. International relations deal with relations between states, while transnational relations concern transboundary interactions in which at least one societal actor is involved.

Etiquette in Ukraine

18 Ноября 2013, доклад

1. Here are a few simple rules of etiquette that may help you out of trouble or embarrassment when visiting Ukraine:
2. If invited into a family home, it is traditional to bring a gift: a bottle of wine, a cake. A bouquet of flowers is customary. If you bring flowers - make sure it is an uneven number of flowers. If there is a child in the house, it is appropriate to provide him/her with a small gift as well.
3. Do not shake hands across the threshold of a door. It is considered bad luck.
4. When shaking hands, take off your gloves!

Euphemisms and taboos

13 Января 2014, реферат

Taboos and euphemisms have always been of great interest as they act as one of the important factors influencing the process of enriching and enlarging word-stock and speech itself. The system of ethnographic taboo including language taboo originally developed on the basis of religious beliefs. However, taboo words are not just the words which are not widely-used because of certain religious beliefs, these are the words which appeared due to some social reasons like politeness, delicacy and eagerness to keep preserve appearances. Taboo words in linguistic meaning are the words which are banned because of mythological beliefs, superstitions, prejudice and to avoid rude or curse words and phrases. As for euphemisms they are the results of language taboos. A euphemism is a generally innocuous word or phrase that replaces an offensive one.

European crisis of 2012

14 Декабря 2012, доклад

Economical crisises used to emerge and repeat themselves throughout the history. Even though they seem unavoidable as a circular process, and many people say that such crisises are a natural process of the economy, we should study and analyze the economy in order to forecast and prevent any upcoming crisis. It's an essential question any economist should think of. Therefore, I am going to talk about the current crisis in the Eurozone.

Evaluative connotation in the semantic structure

04 Ноября 2013, контрольная работа

The denotative component of lexical meaning expressed the conceptual content of a word. Fulfilling the nominative and the communicative functions of the word, it is present in every word and may be regarded as the central factor in the functional language. To denote is to serve as a linguistic expression for a concept or as a name for an individual object. It is the denotational meaning that makes communication possible. For example: when we say стіл, стілець, ліжко, книга etc. we don’t imagine its design, creator, year and so on, we imagine only what they denote: стіл – people can sit in front of it, книга – people can read it and see pictures.

Excotic travel

01 Июня 2013, сочинение

Adventure tour:
• Diving tour with great white sharks at South Africa
• Rafting in Turkey
• Paragliding in Ukraine
• Parachutes
• Skydiving
• Wind surfing
• Rock climbing

Exotic islands for tourists

16 Декабря 2013, реферат

Exotic holidays and vacations on the islands every year is gaining popularity. Indeed, among the many scattered throughout the seas and oceans piece of land is impossible to find two identical. Among them there are island - island beaches and museums, the island - country and strange island.
There are islands for adventurers and romantics, for Beloved and honeymooners. There are islands for real men, where the wind and catch a wave, or go deep - in search of adventure

Fabian society

18 Мая 2015, реферат

The last quarter of the nineteenth century in Britain was marked by a growing critique of laissez-faire capitalism and an upsurge of interest in socialist ideas. The British socialist movement grew particularly strong in the period between the 1880s and 1914 and included Christian and libertarian socialists, Fabians, and Marxists

Fabricarea colorantilor

04 Декабря 2014, реферат

Arta de a colora coincide probabil cu primele inceputuri ale acrtivitatii artistice ale finite umane. Primele informatii sigure privind utilizarea colorantilor dateaza din jurul 2650 i. e. din China. De atunci si pina aproximativ la jumatatea secolului trecut numeroase documente istorice descriu preocuparea diferitor popoare din Asia, Europa, Africa si America de a colora, procesele inregistrate de acestea in mestesugul vopsitului si diversivitatea de coloranti naturali utilizati.