Рефераты по иностранным языкам

Immediate economic impact of the Mindonian government’s decision in 1977 to modernize the country’s shoe-making industryS

17 Февраля 2013, статья

According to given topic background SMindonia is a small developing country in the Indian Ocean with a general Sshoe-making industry. Until 1977, all shoes in this country were made by self-empolyed Sshoemakers, and were made of leather. About 8,000 people were involved in these industries of which 5000 were in shoemakers Sand 3000 in support industries. However, early in 1977, as a result of a trade agreement which committed the Mindonian government to spending investment funds on US technology, two plastic-injection moulding machines were imported from the USA at a cost of $60000 in order to make plastic shoes. The PVC for the shoes also had to be imported. SIn this essay will be analyzed social and economic consequences of adopted decision.SS

Improving technology printed products LLC «FolioPlus»

06 Июня 2013, курсовая работа

Current rates of world economic development cause the high dynamics of market processes that require further attention of higher management staff of enterprises for innovation as one of the sources of competitive advantage. Ensuring the effectiveness of innovation needs to develop a well-defined innovation strategy, which should include identification of the main directions of scientific-technical and production activities in the areas of enterprise development and introduction of new products, improvement and modification of products, bringing to production of new resources and new technologies, developing new methods of organizing production and labor, and the like. Through purposeful innovation companies will be able to create and develop those innovations that can bring them substantial benefits in strengthening the competitive position.

In Russia and Great Britain

03 Апреля 2014, сочинение

Higher education plays a very important role in our life. It is also important for the development of our country. At universities and institutes students train to become teachers, engineers, doctors, architects and other highly-qualified specialists. I want to tell you about higher education in Britain and Russia.

Income and Spending

17 Декабря 2013, реферат

Now lets speak about work people. By the type of work people do workers fall into one of four broad categories.
1. White collar workers are people who do jobs in offices, for example as secretaries, teachers, and insurance agents.
2. Blue collar workers are people who do jobs in factories or outdoors.
3. Service workers provide services to other individuals or businesses.
4. Farmworkers are people who work on their own farms or those of others.

Individual style of a writer: Charles Dickens

20 Ноября 2013, реферат

In fact Dickens's dramatic technique has more in common with the cinema than with pure theatre; but the cinema is essentially a dramatic medium in that it functions through character, action, dialogue, and setting, and only minimally through literary techniques. In this essay I will look at some of the dramatic, and literary, techniques found in Dickens's writing, and consider their effectiveness and their limitations.

Industy, agriculture and transport in the United Kingdom of Great Britain

24 Октября 2012, реферат

In the 18th century the UK was the first country in the world to industrialise, and during the 19th century possessed a dominant role in the global economy. From the late-19th century the Second Industrial Revolution in the United States and the German Empire presented an increasing challenge to Britain's role as leader of the global economy. Despite victory, the costs of fighting both the First World War and Second World War further weakened the relative economic position of the UK, and by 1945 Britain had been superseded by the United States as the world's dominant economic power. However, the UK still maintains a significant role in the world economy.


05 Ноября 2013, доклад

Inflation is the loss in purchasing power of a currency unit such as the dollar, usually expressed as a general rise in the prices of goods and services. A classic example is the Great Inflation of the Roman Empire. Successive emperors replaced a steadily increasing fraction of the silver in their ancient currency, the denarius, with base metals like bronze or copper. As a result prices rose inexorably despite repeated attempts to restrain them through legislation. Diocletian, rather than taking responsibility for the debasement, attributed the rapid inflation of his day to the avarice of his subjects. His famous edict of a.d. 301 threatened with death any vendor who charged prices exceeding official limits. But inflation ran along unhindered for another century until an alternative currency, an undepreciated gold coin known to Shakespeare as the bezant, became the customary unit of account, spreading throughout Europe and lasting well into the Middle Ages..

Influence of crimes in the sphere of customs affairs and some problems of their prevention

20 Апреля 2015, доклад

Abstract. The author of the article analyzes some currently existing problems in the sphere of customs and offers possible ways of their solution. The above-mentioned problems can be used in the preparation of amendments in the effective legislation.

Influenţa jocurilor teatrale asupra gustului estetic al preşcolarilor

11 Января 2014, курсовая работа

Formarea şi dezvoltarea abilităţilor de percepere şi înţelegere a esteticului din lumea înconjurătoare , reprezintă la etapa actuală factorul cel mai important pentru dezvoltare personalităţii în devenire.Acest fapt este determinat de problematica lumii contemporane şi procesul de formare a culturii, ca scop al educaţiei formale.
Determinarea nivelului de influenţă a jocurilor teatrale asupra gustului estetic al preşcolarilor.

İnformasiya-ölçmə və idarəetmə sistemlərinin sadələşdirilmiş

29 Мая 2013, курсовая работа

Obyektin ölçülən və idarə edilən parametrləri vericilər vasitəsilə elektrik siqnalına çevrilir. Bir çox vericilərin çıxış siqnalları – gərginlik, cərəyan, müqavimət və s. kiçik səviyyəyə malik olur və yaxud kiçik diapazonlarda dəyişir. Ona görə də bu siqnalların analoq və yaxud rəqəmli emalını icra etməzdən əvvəl onları sistemin tələblərinə uyğunlaşdırmaq lazım gəlir. Bu məqsədlə ölçmə kanalına analoq siqnallar formalaşdırıcıları (ASF) adı altında birləşdirilmiş bir sıra ölçmə dövrələri daxil edilir. ASF-ın icra etdikləri əsas funksiyalara siqnalların gücləndirilməsi, mövcud standartlara uyğunlaşdırılması, süzgəcləndirilməsi, giriş və çıxışına birləşdirilmiş modulların fiziki cəhətdən uzlaşdırılması, qalvanik ayırma, çevirmə xarakteristikasının xəttiləşdirilməsi və s. daxildir.

Information Computer Systems in the stock market

12 Декабря 2012, доклад

Kazakhstan's stock market is developing at a significant pace, and now it has reached the point where it became effective management unthinkable without the use of powerful computer systems and modern telecommunications. Progress in the application of the securities market of computer technology caused by the fact that to date, there is a wealth of global experience in the development of these technologies and their introduction to the world's stock markets. The stock markets of developed Western countries in its formation passed all stages of the traditional methods of trade with the voice to the electronic trading system.

Information Security (Информационная безопасность)

14 Марта 2013, реферат

Information security means protecting information and information systems from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, modification or destruction.
Since the early days of writing, heads of state and military commanders understood that it was necessary to provide some mechanism to protect the confidentiality of written correspondence and to have some means of detecting tampering.
For over twenty years, information security has held confidentiality, integrity and availability as the core principles of information security.

Inhabitants of the seabed

17 Декабря 2013, доклад

At the ocean bottom at a depth of three kilometers pressure three times greater than the top. Marine snow need many months to get down on the seabed surface. Away from the rocky coast of continents , the bottom of the world ocean stretches for thousands of kilometers and gradually sinks down .

On the seabed , in the sludge are seen faint traces , signs that even here there is life . Who are the inhabitants of the seabed ?

Underwater and on the ocean floor is rich and diverse. So , sea urchins sitting on the ocean floor , screened sludge deposits . Shrimp, elegantly standing on tiptoe , fastidiously plucked pieces of food that come across them .

Inherent Instability In Banking: The Free Banking Experience

05 Декабря 2013, курсовая работа

Чтобы выполнить эти задачи, прежде всего, необходимо определить способ перевода, то есть меру информационной упорядоченности для переводного текста. Первая ступень в выборе способа упорядоченности заключается в определении того, в каком виде должен быть представлен исходный текст в переводящей культуре: полностью или частично. В зависимости от коммуникативного задания на этом этапе выбирается либо полный, либо сокращенный перевод.

Innovation management

16 Декабря 2014, сочинение

Innovation management is the discipline of managing processes in innovation. It can be used to develop both product and organizational innovation. Innovation management includes a set of tools that allow managers and engineers to cooperate with a common understanding of goals and processes. The focus of innovation management is to allow the organization to respond to an external or internal opportunity, and use its creative efforts to introduce new ideas, processes or products.

Innovation of methods in foreign language teaching

09 Июня 2015, дипломная работа

During the past two decades, the exercise of spoken language skills has received increasing attention among educators. Foreign language curricula focus on productive skills with special emphasis on communicative competence. Students' ability to engage in meaningful conversational interaction in the target language is considered an important, if not the most important, goal of second language education. This shift of emphasis has generated a growing need for instructional materials that provide an opportunity for controlled interactive speaking practice outside the classroom.

Integrated Capstone

24 Апреля 2013, практическая работа

This course focuses on the design and management of an overall organizational system consisting of three interacting subsystems: (1) the enterprise itself - its structure, core processes, and relationships with external entities such as customers, suppliers, and outsourcers; (2) the IS function and its role in marshalling information technologies and information assets to support the strategy of the organization, and (3) the information technology architecture consisting of the organization’s networks, hardware, data, and applications.

Intercultural dialogue between Western and Eastern

07 Декабря 2012, реферат

Intercultural dialogue is a complicated business. The most important aim of dialogue is a deepening of consciousness of the common elements of different cultures. The dialogue is a way of communication which requires the willingness for change of all participants. An Asian saying tells: «If the winds of change are blowing, some build up walls, whilst others set up windmills». In the context of this question it means that representatives of the different cultural system perceive the World variou

International business

30 Мая 2013, реферат

International business is a term used to collectively describe all commercial transactions (private and governmental, sales, investments, logistics, and transportation) that take place between two or more nations. Usually, private companies undertake such transactions for profit; governments undertake them for profit and for political reasons. It refers to all those business activities which involves cross border transactions of goods, services, resources between two or more nations. Transaction of economic resources include capital, skills, people etc. for international production of physical goods and services such as finance, banking, insurance, construction etc.

International marriage

15 Мая 2014, реферат

Nowadays concept of international communication spreads widely in our world. Different cultures clash with each other in many spheres of our life, starting from chat in internet and ending states foreign policy. No one would wonder if some person from another country (it can be another continent for sure) passes by you on streets. Communication with people that have different nationality from you has become the norm of life. People connect with each other, know each other, become friends and even make families. We think that international marriage is kind of interest because this concept has many aspects to think about, to know different opinions.

Internet - killer of traditional media

16 Мая 2012, сочинение

The 1st point I’d like to make is that science plays an important role in every person’s life. Science is a source of progress. It develops the world we life in. We can’t imagine our life without science. It’s involved with the way we travel, the homes we live in and the clothes we wear, how we become ill and how medicine helps us to make a full recovery, and has gives us fantastic means of communicating and exploring.

Internet and modern life

28 Декабря 2012, статья

The Internet has already entered our ordinary life. Everybody knows that the Internet is a global computer network, which embraces hundred of millions of users all over the world and helps us to communicate with each other.
The history of Internet began in the United States in 1969. It was a military experiment, designed to help to survive during a nuclear war, when everything around might be polluted by radiation and it would be dangerous to get out for any living being to get some information to anywhere. Information sent over the Internet takes the shortest and safest path available from one computer to another. Because of this, any two computers on the net will be able to stay in touch with each other as long as there is a single route between them. This technology was called packet switching.

Invention of the Airplane

29 Октября 2013, доклад

The Wright brothers, Orville and Wilbur, were two American brothers, inventors, and aviation pioneers who were credited with inventing and building the world's first successful airplane and making the first controlled human flight, on December 17, 1903. From 1905 to 1907, the brothers developed their flying machine into the first practical fixed-wing aircraft. Namely they marked the beginning of a new era, the era of air transport. Since that time people began covering long distances in a short period of time.

Investing. The impact of low interest rates

31 Марта 2013, контрольная работа

How might low real rates boost the equity market? There are two theoretical explanations. The first relates to the fact that equities should be priced as the value of future cashflows, discounted to the current day by an interest rate.* Lower that discount rate and you raise the present value of shares. I have argued that this rationale is flawed; if rates are now because economic growth is slow (and it has been), then one needs to lower the estimate of future cashflows. The effects cancel each other out. The second reason is simple asset switching; low rates on bonds and cash make investors seek out the greater attractions of equities; this may well be the driving force behind 2013's equity rally.

Irina Filimonenko. An Overview of Abraham Lincoln's Life

05 Февраля 2014, реферат

Abraham Lincoln was born Sunday, February 12, 1809, in a log cabin near Hodgenville, Kentucky. He was the son of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, and he was named for his paternal grandfather. Thomas Lincoln was a carpenter and farmer. Both of Abraham's parents were members of a Baptist congregation which had separated from another church due to opposition to slavery.
When Abraham was seven, the family moved to southern Indiana. Abraham had gone to school briefly in Kentucky and did so again in Indiana.

Isaac Newton

24 Марта 2015, доклад

Isaac Newton - talented English physicist, mathematician, famous astronomer and a genius in mechanics, one of the legendary founders of the basic, classical physics, honorary member and later president of the Royal Society of London.

Islamic banking

19 Сентября 2013, контрольная работа

Some financial institutions do not charge interest on loans or pay interest on savings, because it is against certain ethical or religious beliefs. For example, in Islamic countries and major financial centres there are Islamic banks that offer interest-free banking.
Islamic banks do not pay interest to depositors or charge interest to borrowers. Instead they invest in companies and share the profits with their depositors. Investment financing and trade financing are done on a profit and loss sharing (PLS) basis. Consequently the banks, their depositors, and their borrowers also share the risks of the business. This form of financing is similar to that of venture capitalists or risk capitalists who buy the shares of new companies.

Ist der erste Eindruck der beste?

21 Мая 2012, реферат

Wo und wann wir mit anderen Menschen zusammentreffen, bilden wir uns eine Meinung über sie. Da ist uns jemand auf den ersten Blick “sympathisch” oder “unsympathisch”, den einen schätzen wir sofort als “freundlich” und “kameradschaftlich” ein, den anderen dagegen als “eingebildet” und “unfreundlich”.

It’s better to have one bird in our hands, than to have a hundred flying

25 Ноября 2013, творческая работа

The proverb says: “It’s better to have one bird in our hands, than to have a hundred flying”, but there another version of the proverb: “A bird in the hand is better than two in the bush”. The proverb means that it is better to be happy with something you already have, rather than pursuing something you may never get.

Japanese cuisine

04 Июня 2013, доклад

First, the Japanese believe in creating food according to the season. They use the ingredients that are ripe and prime in the current season in which they are cooking. For instance, they highlight bamboo shoots in the spring and chestnuts in the fall because those are the items that are most apparent in those specific seasons. They also like the season they are cooking in to reflect in the plating of their dishes. The use of inedible tree branches or leaves are also used to present diners with a symbol of the season. Presentation in this regard is also important to the Japanese as Japanese chefs believe that a person should love what they see before they actually consume it.