Рефераты по иностранным языкам

Logistika mõiste, olemus ja üldkontseptsioon

30 Ноября 2013, лекция

1992. aastal Stockholmis peetud Euroopa Logistika Assotsiatsiooni (European Logistics Association) rahvusvahelisel sümpoosionil märgiti, et sõnal “logistika” puudub tänapäeval üheselt aktsepteeritav tähendus. Logistikat defineeritakse erinevalt. Euroopa Standardiseerimis Komitee (European Committee of Standardization) peab logistikaks inimeste ja/või kaupade vedamise ja ladustamise kavandamist, korraldamist, kontrollimist ning kaasabi eesmärgiga saavutada süsteemne tulemus.
USA Logistika Juhtimise Nõukogu (U.S. Council of Logistics Management) formuleerib logistikat tooraine, pool- ja lõpptoodete lähtepunktist tarbimispunkti vedamise, ladustamise ning sellega seotud info korraldamise ja kontrollimisena, et rahuldada kliendi nõudmisi.


23 Мая 2013, реферат

London is a city which was never planned. It has accumulated. So, it includes the City of London, the West End and the East End. The city is really large – more than 8 million people live in so-called Greater London – that is, London and its suburbs. It stands on the both sides of the river Thames and 14 bridges span the river. The Thames, described variously as “liquid history” and the “noblest river in Europe” is graced in London with a score of bridges, tunnels and a barrier, but until 1750, when the first Westminster Bridge opened, London Bridge was the one and the only. The first one built in stone from 1176 to 1209 became renowned throughout Europe for its houses and a chapel dedicated to St Thomas of Canterbury


01 Декабря 2014, контрольная работа

London is the capital of Great Britain. London is a very old town. London is two thousand years old. Many years ago London was a small town on the Thames. There were a lot of villages round it. After many years London and three hundred villages grew into a very large city. Some of the names of those villages are the names of the streets in modern London-Kensington, Westminster.

London is the capital of Great Britain

11 Сентября 2013, сочинение

London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and cultural centre. It’s one of the largest cities in the world. Its population is more than 9 million people. London is situated on the river Thames. It was founded more than two thousand years ago.
London is an ancient city. It appeared at the place where the Roman invaders decided to build a bridge over the Thames. There are four parts in London: West End, East End, the City and Westminster.

London's New Mayor: Goodbye Ken, Hello Boris

05 Декабря 2013, сочинение

London has a new mayor, after its citizens voted in the Conservative Party candidate Boris Johnson, ahead of Labour's Ken Livingstone. Well-known for his wild blonde hair, his self-deprecating humour and his reputation for gaffes and blunders, Mr Johnson has been a colourful figure in British politics for many years.
While few doubted his energy and charisma, Boris Johnson's narrow victory has surprised his critics, who questioned whether he was a serious enough politician to win.

Looking for a job

06 Мая 2015, контрольная работа

Getting a job is a problem which every person earlier or later faces. To find a good job when your are young and do not have working experience is rather difficult.
There are many ways to get your first job. The first place where you can ask for a job is the organization where you are undergoing practical training.
Then you may ask your friends and relatives for help. You can also go to a personnel agency and look for it in newspapers. But tale into consideration that agencies take rather high fees for their service.
When you find an interesting vacancy, you are to prepare your resume. You should take into considerations your abilities and talents.

Lüneburg – Geschichte und Natur

07 Октября 2012, курсовая работа

Die Hansestadt Lüneburg ist eine große selbständige Stadt in Niedersachsen mit etwa 73.000 Einwohnern. Die Stadt wird im Jahr 956 erstmals urkundlich erwähnt. Lüneburg liegt am Unterlauf der Ilmenau, etwa 30 km vor ihrem Zusammenfluss mit der Elbe. Die Lüneburger Altstadt liegt zudem über einem Salzstock, der den Reichtum der Stadt begründete und dessen Kappe aus Gips, der Kalkberg, zugleich einen hervorragenden Bauplatz für die Fluchtburg darstellte, welche Lüneburg ihren Namen gab.

Ma journée de travail

10 Апреля 2013, сочинение

J'ai dix-huit ans et je suis une étudiante. Comme mes cours à l'université commencent à trios heures de l’apres-midi. Mon réveil sonne à neuf heures du matin. Je me leve et j'allume la lampe. Après je fais ma toilette. Je me lave,je m’essuie avec une serviette , je me brosse les dents avec du dentifrice et une brosse à dents. Je repasse dans ma chambre ou je m’habille et je me peigne.
Puis, je prends vite mon petit dejeuner. D’ordinaire, pour le petit dejeuner, je prends deux ou trois tartines ou deux oeufs durs et je bois du cafe au lait. De plus, je mange une pomm

Main types of English dictionaries.

18 Сентября 2012, реферат

ENCYCLOPAEDIC AND LINGUISTIC DICTIONARIES. The choice of words: thing-books vs wordbooks;
all words of the language vs words of designative character (names for substances, diseases, animals,
institutions, terms of science, biographical data). The information about a word in an entry: spelling,
pronunciation, meaning, examples of use vs extensive extralinguistic information. Cf the entries for CAT:
CAT (family Felidae), any of a group of carnivorous mammals that includes the true cats—lion, tiger,
jaguar, leopard, puma, and domestic cat—and the cheetah (see photograph).

Malaysia banking system

14 Мая 2013, реферат

According to Bank Negara Malaysia, Malaysia banking system is divided into 3 main groups which are; 1) monetary institution comprising the Central Bank (Bank Negara), commercial and Islamic financial institutions; 2) non- monetary institutions namely merchant banks, credit and insurance companies, and development banks; and 3) foreign banks representative offices and offshore banks. Prior to the 1997 financial crisis, Malaysia had thirty - seven commercial banks, forty finance companies and twelve merchant banks. However, after the financial crisis 1997, most of the banks has consolidation through mergers and acquisitions to strengthening of these financial institutions has result in thirty – five licensed commercial banks, thirty – one finance banks and twelve merchant banks. As to date, there are only twenty – two licensed commercial banks and fourteen merchant banks in Malaysia. (Shanthi Kandiah, 2009)

Managers and Managing

15 Апреля 2014, реферат

1. Management is a process of using organizational resources to achieve organizational goals effectively and efficiently through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
A manager is a person responsible for supervising the use of an organization’s resources to meet its goals.
Efficiency is a measure of how well or productively resources are used to achieve a goal.
Effectiveness is a measure of the appropriateness of the goals an organization is pursuing and of the degree to which the organization achieves those goals.
2. Planning is a process that managers use to identify and select appropriate goals and course of action.

Market Research

17 Сентября 2013, реферат

Market Research is a scientific tool of management. Such research is concerned with the market- or markets- for both capital goods and consumer goods in an ever increasing volume. Extensively practiced in the US since the 1920`s? it started to develop on significant scale in Great Britain by the middle 30`s and has had a considerable upsurge since the Second World War.
Since production becomes more and more intricate as modern methods of distribution grow increasingly complex, market research is called in to give producers clear directives. In simplex days of marketing this was done by accumulated experience, by experiment or by hunch. It has been found, however, that catering for the modern mass market under pressure of competition does not always allow time to gather experience, makes experimenting dangerous and operation by hunch a highly hazardous procedure which might costly failure by misinterpreting the market`s reaction.

Match the words and their definitions

16 Апреля 2013, контрольная работа

the careful watching of someone who is thought likely to do smth. wrong, or of somewhere where it is thought likely that smth. wrong might be done

Mathematical constants

15 Декабря 2014, реферат

The number e is an important mathematical constant that is the base of the natural logarithm. It is approximately equal to 2.71828. And is the limit of (1 + 1/n)n as n approaches infinity, an expression that arises in the study of compound interest. It can also be calculated as the sum of the infinite series.

Mavzu: Kompyuter haqida umumiy ma’lumot.

16 Января 2014, реферат

Kompyuter haqida umumiy ma’lumot.
Kompyuterlarni sinflash.
Shaxsiy kompyuterlarning tuzilishi.
Texnika xavfsizligi.

Means of realization of irony

20 Ноября 2012, курсовая работа

The structure of the work is determined by the tasks set. The work consists of the introduction, two chapters, conclusions, bibliography and the list of literature.
In the 1st chapter we present the etymology of irony, the approaches to it, the problem of its classification and the interaction between the content and the form of irony.
The 2nd chapter is devoted to the various means of realization of ironical meaning. In this chapter we studied such stylistic means of realization of irony as lexical stylistic devices, syntactical stylistic devices, lexico-syntactical stylistic devices and phonetic stylistic devices. Here we also analyze stylistically neutral means of realization of irony.

Medios de Comunicación de masas

02 Мая 2013, реферат

La comunicación abarca diversas formas de interacción social, desde el intercambio de ideas en una conversación hasta la relación social a distancia entre individuos conectados ya sea a través de un medios escrito (por ejemplo a través de una carta, un telegrama, un medio de información, etc.) o a través de medios telemáticos masivos (tales como la prensa, la radio, el teléfono, la televisión, etc). A lo largo de la historia de la humanidad, el hombre siempre ha sentido la necesidad de comunicarse debido a diferentes razones; el hombre es un ser social que no puede vivir aislado, necesita establecer una comunicación ya sea por medio de signos, sonidos, caracteres alfabéticos, ideogramas, gestos, señales, dibujos simbólicos, etc.

Mehnat huquqi asoslari

18 Февраля 2014, реферат

Mehnat huquqi normalarini o’rganish va huquqiy majburiyatlarini o’rgatishdan iborat: 1. Mehnat huquqi normalari to’grisida tushuncha berish. 2. Mehnat shartnomalari tushunchasi. 3. Mehnat huquqi normalariga ko’nikma hosil qilish. Insonlarni shahsiy, siesiy va ijtimoiy iqtisodiy huquqlari va burchlarini anglab olishjaraenida, ularni huquqiy madaniyatini oshirish, mehnat sharoitlari va huquqlari to’ђrisida ma'lumotga ega bo’lish.

Methods of teaching speech

11 Июня 2014, реферат

Language came into life as a means of communication. It exists and is alive only through speech. When we speak about teaching a foreign language, we first of all have in mind teaching it as a means of communication.
In teaching speech the teacher has to cope with two tasks. They are: to teach his pupils to understand the foreign language and to teach them to speak the language. So, speech is a bilateral process.

Middle english and early new english phonetics

12 Сентября 2013, реферат

During several centuries after the Norman conquest the business of writing was in the hands of French scribes. They introduced into English some peculiarities of French graphic habits. Traces of French traditions in writing have stayed on in English to the present day.

First of all .we must note some changes in the alphabet. Several letters typical of OE gradually came out of use, and some new ones were introduced. The alphabet of the 14th century is basically the same that is in use in our days.
The letter з, which was used in OE to denote several distinct consonant phonemes , is gradually replaced by the letters g and y. Thus, OE зód now appears as good, and the OE зear as yer. The ligature æ also comes into disuse in ME.

Mikhail Bulgakov. The Master and Margarita

01 Декабря 2013, лекция

At the sunset hour of one warm spring day two men were to be seen at
Patriarch's Ponds. The first of them--aged about forty, dressed in a greyish
summer suit--was short, dark-haired, well-fed and bald. He carried his
decorous pork-pie hat by the brim and his neatly shaven face was embellished
by black hornrimmed spectacles of preternatural dimensions. The other, a
broad-shouldered young man with curly reddish hair and a check cap pushed
back to the nape of his neck, was wearing a tartan shirt, chewed white
trousers and black sneakers.

Mislim Banks

04 Сентября 2013, доклад

Islamic banking system is thought to be conquering the world. The U.S., Greece and many other countries have already began to use use the services of Islamic banks. There are also different special services for Muslims in Russian Banks. But nevertheless there is a number of countries, such as Ukraine, where it is forbidden to make loans without interest, and this is an order of the Central Bank. However, Islamic lending organizations are now working in more than 70 countries. Naturally, their main clients are Muslims, that are about a quarter of the world's population.

Modal verbs

29 Октября 2012, реферат

Modal verbs, unlike other verbs, do not denote actions to states, but only show the attitude of the speaker towards the action expressed by the infinitive in combination with which they form compound modal predicates

Modern English Literature

24 Ноября 2013, реферат

The interest, raised recently towards English language, the development of international relations on different levels has reasoned the desire to learn as much as possible about the country where this language originated as well as about its culture.
The literature is the magic key that opens the door of cognition of many sphere of human knowledge. It helps us to learn some interesting facts about history, to know more about people's life in other countries. Sometimes, while reading a book, we can analyze actions of it is characters and it helps us to draw some certain conclusion. That’s why I find studying foreign literature is not only interesting, but also very useful.

Modernism in British and American Literature

20 Января 2014, реферат

In the world of art, generally speaking, Modernism was the beginning of the distinction between “high” art and “low” art. The educational reforms of the Victorian Age had led to a rapid increase in literacy rates, and therefore a greater demand for literature or all sorts. A popular press quickly developed to supply that demand. The sophisticated literati looked upon this new popular literature with scorn. Writers who refused to bow to the popular tastes found themselves in a state of alienation from the mainstream of society.

Mon appartement

10 Мая 2013, сочинение

Voici l’immeuble où mon appartement se trouve. C’est un immeuble de neuf étages. A l’entrée, chaque locataire a sa boite aux lettres. Aux paliers les appuis des fenêtres sont ornée de plantes en pots. Il a tout le confort moderne, comme l’électricité, le téléphone, l’accès à l’Internet, un ascenseur, un vide-ordures et un parcage à travers la rue et il se trouve aussi pas loin du metro et il y a un arrêt de trolleybus devant l’immeuble. Dans le batiment d’à coté il y a un magasin d’allimentation, c'est pourquoi on ne perd pas beacoup de temps pour acheter des provisions.

Monarchy in Britain

12 Апреля 2012, доклад

Great Britain is a monarchy, but the British Queen is not absolute, her powers are limited by Parliament. The power is hereditary and not elective. The Queen is not only head of state, but also an important symbol of national unity. In law she is head of the executive, an integral part of the legislature, head of the judiciary, commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Crown and the supreme governor of the established Church of England.

Monetary Policy

07 Апреля 2013, творческая работа

Definition of Monetary Policy
Types of Monetary Policy
General (quantitative) methods
Selective (qualitative) methods

Monetary Policy Tools of European Central Bank

09 Сентября 2013, доклад

The European Central Bank (ECB) is the sixth of the seven institutions of the European Union (EU) as listed in the Treaty on European Union (TEU). It is the central bank for the euro and administers the monetary policy of the euro area comprises the 17 European Union countries that have introduced the euro since 1999.
ECB was established in June 1, 1998. The bank is headquartered in Frankfurt, Germany. The current President of the ECB is Mario Draghi, former governor of the Bank of Italy.

Money and income

02 Апреля 2013, реферат

The very concept of black money has undergone a great change. In 1950s and early 60s evasion of income tax by big industrialists and businessmen was considered the source of black money. This evasion has been renamed as tax planning. It has resulted in saving a good amount as white money.