Автор работы: Пользователь скрыл имя, 19 Мая 2013 в 20:06, дипломная работа
The theme of our Diploma Thesis is “Analysis of Syntactical Stylistic Devices Based on the Arrangement of Sentence Members” (based on Daphne du Maurier’s novel “Rebecca”). The cause of this selecting is the linguistic importance of this subject because Syntactical Stylistic Devices and Arrangement of Sentence Members are major part of lexicology which helps to understand richness of language and its beauty. Our investigation is connected with the novel of Daphne du Maurier “Rebecca” because prose helps us to discover and analyze all stylistic devices and to show all sense of this novel.
Chapter One. Syntactical Stylistic Devices_______________________________
1.1. Definition of Syntactical Stylistic Devices _____________________________
1.2. Arrangement of Sentence Members___________________________________
Chapter Two. Analysis of Syntactical Stylistic Devices based on part of the novel by Daphne Du Maurier “Rebecca”____________________________________________________________
Conclusions __________________________________________________________ Bibliography__________________________________________________________
Appendix 2 __________________________________________________________
Doctor of Pedagogy,
Master in Philology in
the field of Americanistics
223.1.04 English Language and Literature
Chapter One. Syntactical
1.1. Definition of Syntactical Stylistic Devices _____________________________
Arrangement of Sentence Members_______________________
Analysis of Syntactical Stylistic Devices based on part of the novel
by Daphne Du Maurier “Rebecca”_____________________
Appendix 2 ______________________________
of our Diploma Thesis is “Analysis of Syntactical Stylistic Devices
Based on the Arrangement of Sentence Members” (based on Daphne du
Maurier’s novel “Rebecca”). The cause of this selecting is the
linguistic importance of this subject because Syntactical Stylistic
Devices and Arrangement of Sentence Members are major part of lexicology
which helps to understand richness of language and its beauty.
Our investigation is connected with the novel of Daphne du Maurier “Rebecca”
because prose helps us to discover and analyze all stylistic devices
and to show all sense of this novel.
The main goal is to prove that major processes of Syntactical Stylistic Devices play a relevant role in the Daphne du Maurier’s novel “Rebecca” and to investigate which of them are the most frequent and productive.
It leads to several objectives:
a). to select theoretical sources connected with the subject-matter;
b). to study these theoretical sources;
c). to learn all Syntactical Stylistic Devices;
d). to find out which of these devices are the most productive;
e). to investigate the novel of Daphne du Maurier “Rebecca”;
f). to pick out and analyze a certain amount of examples in order to prove the hypothesis of the diploma;
g) to come to certain conclusions;
h) to present the results of the investigation
The hypotheses of the work is that after analyzing a part of the novel and finding there some Syntactical Stylistic Devices, we must understand what devices are more used in the novel. These devices will help us to investigate the novel better and our diploma work.
of the work is the following: Introduction, Chapter One, Chapter Two,
Conclusions, Bibliography, and two Appendixes.
Introduction states the topicality of the subject studied the motives for its choice, the main goal, and the objectives, the methods for the investigation, the hypothesis, and the work structure.
Chapter One is entitled “The Analysis of Theoretical materials
on Syntactical Stylistic Devices”. It contains theoretical data on
different ways of Syntactical Stylistic Devices and explains each of
devices on this theme. It represents the theoretical material for studying
of such authors as: Kukharenko V.A. “A book of Practice in Stylistic”;
Antrushina G.B. “English Lexicology”, and others.
Chapter Two is entitled “Analysis of Syntactical Stylistic Devices based on the novel by Daphne Du Maurier “Rebecca.” In this chapter we have analyzed the novel “Rebecca” by Daphne du Maurier. Chapter Two gives the analysis of repetition, inversion, one-word sentence, parallel constructions, asyndeton, polysindeton and others. Our aim is to find and to show what devices are more and what are less.
Conclusions is the part of the diploma thesis in which the
results of the investigation as well as the confirmation of the hypothesis
of the work is shown, that is, Stylistic Devices, are more used in the
novel “Rebecca” by Daphne du Maurier.
Bibliography presents a selection of the authors dealing with the subject of the investigation and some internet sources connected with the same subject. It also presents the list of dictionaries used in the course of work and literary sources by Daphne du Maurier.
Appendix 1 shows the examples, which were not included in Chapter Two.
Appendix 2 presents the diagram in which all the stylistic devices are shown.
We consider the work will be of practical use for the future researchers in the field of Stylistics of the English language.
Chapter One. The Analysis of Theoretical Materials on Syntactical Stylistic Devices
1.1.A stylistic device (SD) is a conscious and intentional intensification of some structural or semantic property of a language unit. The interplay or clash of the dictionary and contextual meanings of words brings about the stylistic devices.
SDs always carry some additional information, either emotive or logical.
SDs must be regarded as a special code which has to be well known to the reader in order to be deciphered easily.
Stylistic devices are designed to achieve a particular artistic effect.
Inversion/Change of Word Order aims at making one of the members of the sentence more conspicuous, more important, more emphatic.
Detached Construction is a secondary part of a sentence,
placed so that it seems formally independent of the word it logically
refers to. The detached part, being torn away from its referent, assumes
a greater degree of significance.
Sometimes one of the secondary parts of the sentence by some specific consideration of the writer is placed so that it seems formally independent of the word it logically refers to. Such parts of structures are called detached. They seem to dangle in the sentence as isolated parts. The detached part, being torn away from its referent, assumes a greater degree of significance and is given prominence by intonation".
The structural patterns of detached constructions have not yet been classified, but the most noticeable cases are those in which an attribute or an adverbial modifier is placed not in immediate proximity to its referent, but in some other position, as in the following examples:
1) "Steyne rose up, grinding his teeth, pale, and with fury in his eyes."
2) "Sir Pitt came in first, very much flushed, and rather unsteady in his gait"
Sometimes a nominal phrase is thrown into the sentence forming a syntactical unit with the rest of the sentence, as in "And he walked slowly past again, along the river - an evening of clear, quiet beauty, all harmony and comfort, except within his heart."
The essential quality of detached construction lies in the fact that the isolated parts represent a kind of independent whole thrust into the sentence or placed in a position which will make the phrase (or word) seem independent. But a detached phrase cannot rise to the rank of a primary member of the sentence - it always remains secondary from the semantic point of view, although structurally it possesses all the features of a primary member. This clash of the structural and semantic aspects of detached constructions produces the desired effect - forcing the reader to interpret the logical connections between the component parts of the sentence. Logical ties between them always exist in spite of the absence of syntactical indicators.
Detached constructions in their common forms make the written variety of language akin to the spoken variety where the relation between the component parts is effectively materialized by means of intonation. Detached construction, as it were, becomes a peculiar device bridging the norms of written and spoken language. This stylistic device is akin to inversion. The functions are almost the same. But detached construction produces a much stronger effect, inasmuch as it presents parts of the utterance significant from the author's point of view in a more or less independent manner.
Here are some more examples of detached constructions:
‘Daylight was dying, the moon rising, gold behind the poplars.'
'I want to go,' he said, miserable.'
‘She was lovely: all of her-delightful.’
The italicized phrases and words in these sentences seem to be isolated, but still the connection with the primary members of the corresponding sentences is clearly implied. Thus gold behind the poplars may be interpreted as a simile or a metaphor: the moon like gold was rising behind the poplars, or the moon rising, it was gold...
Detached construction sometimes causes the simultaneous realization of two grammatical meanings of a word. In the sentence ‘I want to go,' he said, miserable’ the last word might possibly have been understood as an adverbial modifier to the word said if not for the comma, though grammatically miserably would be expected. The pause indicated by the comma implies that miserable is an adjective used absolutely and referring to the pronoun ‘he’.
The same can be said about Dreiser's sentence with the word delightful,l here again the mark of punctuation plays an important role. The dash, standing before the word, makes the word conspicuous and being isolated, it becomes the culminating point of the climax- lovely... delightful, i.e. the peak of the whole utterance. The phrase all of her is also somehow isolated. The general impression suggested by the implied intonation, is a strong feeling of admiration; and as is usually the case, strong feelings reject coherent and logical syntax. In the English language detached constructions are generally used in the belles-lettres prose style and mainly with words that have some explanatory function, for example: "June stood in front, fending off this idle curiosity - a little bit of a thing, as somebody said, 'all hair and spirit'..." Detached construction as a stylistic device is a typification of the syntactical peculiarities of colloquial language.
Detached construction is a stylistic phenomenon, which has so far been little investigated. The device itself is closely connected with the intonation pattern of the utterance. In conversation any word or phrase or even sentence may be made more conspicuous by means of intonation. Therefore precision in the syntactical structure of the sentence is not so necessary from the communicative point of view. But it becomes vitally important in writing. Here precision of syntactical relations is the only way to make the utterance fully communicative. Therefore when the syntactical relations become obscure, each member of the sentence that seems to be dangling becomes logically significant. A variant of detached construction is parenthesis. "Parenthesis is a qualifying, explanatory or appositive word, phrase, clause, sen¬tence, or other sequence which interrupts a syntactic construction without otherwise affecting it, having often a characteristic into¬nation and indicated in writing by commas, brackets or dashes."
In fact parenthesis sometimes embodies a considerable volume of predicativeness, thus giving the utterance an additional nuance of meaning or a tinge of emotional colouring.
Steyne rose up, grinding his teeth, pale, and with fury in his eyes.
This stylistic device is akin to inversion, detached construction produces a much stronger effect.
“I want to go’, he said, miserable.”
A variant of detached construction is parenthesis. Parenthesis is a qualifying, explanatory or appositive word, phrase, sentence, etc. which interrupts a syntactic construction, giving an utterance an additional meaning or emotional colouring. It is indicated in writing by commas, brackets or dashes.
Carl, a great singer, was not a good dancer.
Parallel Construction may be encountered not so much in the sentence as in the macro-structures. The necessary condition in parallel construction is identical, or similar, syntactical structure in two or more sentences or parts of a sentence in close succession:
“There were real silver spoons to stir the tea with, and real china
cups to drink tea out of, and plates of the same to hold the cakes and
Parallel Construction is most frequently used in enumeration, antithesis and climax, thus consolidating the general effect achieved by these stylistic devices.
In the following example parallelism backs up repetition, alliteration, and antithesis, making the whole sentence almost epigrammatic:
“And so, from hour to hour, we ripe and ripe,
And then, from hour to hour, we rot and rot.”
Parallel Construction emphasizes the similarity, diversity,
contrasts the ideas equates the significance of the parts.
Parallel construction is a device, which may be encountered not so much in the sentence. The necessary condition in parallel construction is identical or, similar, syntactical structure in two or more, sentences or parts of a sentence, as in:
E.g. "There were, ..., real silver spoons to stir he tea with, and real china cups to drink it out of, and plates of the same to hold the cakes and toast in. " (Dickens)
Parallel constructions are often backed up by repetition of is (lexical repetition) and conjunctions and prepositions polysyndeton). Pure parallel construction, however, does not depend on any other kind of repetition but the repetition of the syntactical design of the sentence.
Parallel constructions may be partial or complete. Partial parallel arrangement is the repetition of some parts of successive sentences or clauses as in:
"It is the mob that labours in your fields and serve in your houses - that man your navy and recruit your army, - that have enabled you to defy all the world, and can also defy you when neglect and calamity have driven them to despair." (Byron)
The attributive clauses here all begin with the subordinate conjunction that which is followed by a verb in the same tense form, except the last (have enabled). The verbs however are followed either by adverbial modifiers of place (in your fields, in your houses) or by direct objects (your navy, your army).
The third attributive clause is not built on the pattern of the first two, although it preserves the parallel structure in general (that + verb predicate + object), while the fourth has broken away entirely. Complete parallel arrangement, also called balance, maintains the principle of identical structures throughout the corresponding sentences, as in: "The seeds ye sow - another reaps, The robes ye weave - another wears, The arms ye forget- another bears." (P. B. Shelley)
Parallel construction is most frequently used in enumera¬tion, antithesis and in climax, thus consolidating the general effect achieved by these stylistic devices.
There are two main functions of parallel construction:
semantic and structural. On the one hand a parallel arrangement suggests
equal semantic significance of the component parts, on the other hand,
it gives a rhythmical design to these component parts, which makes itself
most keenly felt in balanced" constructions. Parallel construction
is used in different styles of writing with slightly different functions.
When used in the matter-of-fact styles it carries, in the main, the
idea of semantic equality of the parts, as in scientific prose, where
the logical principle of arranging ideas predominates. In the belles-lettres
style parallel construction carries an emotive function. That is why
it is mainly used as a technical means in building up other stylistic
devices, in particular antithesis and climax. It is natural that parallel
construction should very frequently be used in poetical structures.
Alternation of similar units being the basic principle of verse, similarity
in longer units - i.e. in the stanza, is to be expected.
Our senses perceive no extremes. Too much sound deafens us; too much light dazzles us; too great distance or proximity hinders our view.
Parallelism always generates rhythm; hence it is natural to be used in poetry.
Chiasmus/ Reversed Parallel Constructions based on the repetition of a syntactical pattern, but it has a cross order of words and phases.
Chiasmus lays stress on the second part of the utterance
and always brings in some new shade of meaning or additional emphasis.
Chiasmus or Reversed Parallel Construction belongs to the group of stylistic devices based on the repetition of a syntactical pattern; but it has a cross order of words and phrases. The structure of two successive sentences or of a sentence' may be described as reversed parallel construction, the word order of one of the sentences being inverted as compared to that of the other as in:
"As high as we have mounted in delight
In our dejection do we sink as low." (Wordsworth)
‘Down dropped, the breeze, The sails dropped down." (Coleridge)
Chiasmus is sometimes achieved by a sudden change from active voice to passive or vice versa, for example:
'The register of his burial was signed by the clergyman, the clerk, the taker and the chief mourner, Scrooge signed it. (Dickens)
This device is effective in that it helps to lay stress on the second part of the utterance, which is opposite in structure, as our dejection; Scrooge signed it. This is due to the sudden change in the structure, which by its very unexpectedness linguistically requires a slight pause before it. As is seen from the examples above, chiasmus can appear only when there are two successive sentences or coordinate parts of a sentence. So distribution, here close succession, is the factor, which predetermines the birth of the device. There are different variants of the structural design of chiasmus. The first example given, shows chiasmus appearing in a complex sentence, where the second part has an opposite arrangement. The second example demonstrates chiasmus in a sentence expressing semantically the relation of cause and effect. Structurally, however, the two parts are presented as independent sentences, and it is the chiasmatic structure, which supports the idea of subordination. The third example is composed of two independent sentences and the chiasmus serves to increase the effect of climax. Here is another example of chiasmus where two parallel constructions are followed by a reversed parallel construction linked to the former by the conjunction and:
"The night winds sigh, the breakers roar, And shrieks the wild sea-mew." (Byron)
It must be remembered that chiasmus is a syntactical, not a lexical device, i.e. it is only the arrangement of the parts of the utterance which constitutes this stylistic device. In the famous epigram by Byron "In the days of old men made the manners; Manners now make men," there is no inversion, but a lexical device. Both parts of the parallel construction have the same, the normal word order. However the witty arrangement of the words has given the utterance an epigrammatic character. This device may be classed as lexical chiasmus or chiasmatic repetition. Byron particularly favoured it. Here are example:
"His jokes were sermons, and his sermons jokes."
It should be mentioned that the difference in meaning of the repeated words on which the epigrammatic effect rests: 'strange-strange;' 'no more no more', 'jokes-jokes.'
Syntactical chiasmus is sometimes used to break the monotony of parallel constructions. But whatever the purpose of chiasmus, it will always bring in some new shade of meaning or additional emphasis on some portion of the second part. The stylistic effect of this construction has been so far little investigated. But even casual observation will show that as should be perceived as a complete unit. One cannot help noticing that the first part in chiasmus is somewhat complete, it calls for continuation, and the anticipation is rewarded by the second part of the construction, which is, as it the completion of the idea. Like parallel construction, chiasmus contributes to the rhythmical quality of the utterance, and the pause caused by the change in the syntactical pattern may be likened to a caesura in prosody. As can be seen from this short analysis of chiasmus, it has developed, like all stylistic devices, within the framework of the literary form of the language. However its prototype may be found in the norms of expressions of the spoken language, as in the emphatic: 'He was brave man, was John.''
Repetition is used when the speaker is under the stress of strong emotions. It shows the state of mind of the speaker.
The repetition ‘I don’t want to hear’ shows the excited state of mind of the speaker. Repetition aims at fixing the attention of the reader on the key-word of the utterance.
Anaphora is the repetition of the same word at the
beginning of two or more phrases
Ignorant of how Soams watched her, ignorant of her reckless desperation, ignorant of all this.