Автор работы: Пользователь скрыл имя, 25 Сентября 2012 в 18:30, доклад
Краткий доклад об Австралии на английском языке.
We decided to write about this country, because the world of Australia is very interesting. Australia has been called "the land of differences and the continent of contrast". Also the history is interesting too. We think that this country is very beautiful, and you must to know about her all facts.
The east coast of Australia was discovered by Captain Cook in 1770, It was then first used as a colony for convicts!
Other settlements of a few free settlers began to appear. Of these settlements Sydney was the most important; but other smaller settlements for convicts were in Tasmania, at Brisbane, and on the Swan River in Western Australia.
The early settlers were very cruel to the aborigines, the people who have lived in Australia from the earliest times. They were killed or driven away from their lands.
The discovery of gold in 1851 brought very many people to Australia and the character of the colony began to change. But still, the raising of sheep was for a long time the most important occupation for the Australians.
Towards the end of the 19th century, the Australian colonies began to discuss some form of union. They formed a federation, the new constitution was introduced on January 1, 1901; and the birth of the new nation was celebrated.
The Commonwealth of Australia is a federal state within the Commonwealth. Its territories are the continent of Australia, the island of Tasmania and a number of smaller islands. It has an area of about eight million square kilometers.
The continent of Australia is mostly a great plain with mountains in the east and south-east. The western part of the continent forms a plateau which occupies half of the continent. The Central
Lowlands, a great part of which is very dry, lie between the Western Australian plateau and the Eastern Highlands. Through the eastern part of these Central Lowlands run Australia's greatest rivers, the Murray and the Darling. A number of short rivers flow from the Australian Alps and the Blue Mountains into the Pacific Ocean.
Australia has several different climatic regions, from warm to subtropical and tropical. There are tropical forests in the north-east because the winds from the sea bring heavy rainfalls, especially in tropical summer. The climate in the
There are five big cities in Australia: Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Perth and Brisbane. Each city is the capital of the state in which it is situated. Sydney has about three million inhabitants, Melbourne has about two and a half million, the other cities are much smaller.
Australia is rich in minerals, which are mined l in different parts of the country, especially in Western Australia and in the north-east of the country.
Most of the factories are concentrated in or around the big cities. They produce
goods for the motor-car, machine-building, clothing and food industries. Sydney,
Melbourne, Adelaide, Brisbane and Perth are the country's main ports
Today there are about fifteen million people in Australia; most of them are of British origin.
At the end of the 18th century there were 300,000 aborigines in the country. There are now only 40,000 full aborigines and 39,000 part aborigines who live mainly in the tropical and desert areas.
A typical Australian is a townsman. Only seven per cent of the population live and work like farmers. An Australian townsman dreams about life in the country, but such dreams almost never come true. He can spend time in the countryside only on Saturday or Sunday. And he goes there by car with a caravan or a comfortable tent. Yet the Australians like to think of themselves as people who are close to nature.
Schools. Most children in Australia go to district schools. But about twenty thousand children live too far from a district school. That is why they have to work through correspondence courses until the end of the secondary school stage. The children's work is checked by one or both parents and then posted to the capital. In addition to the correspondence courses there are twelve Schools of the Air, which cover twelve million square miles. The children are linked with each other and with their teachers using a two-way radio. The teachers speak to the children over the radio and the students listen, write exercises and do homework. Over the radio they and their parents can talk to the teachers.
The students send their exercise-books to their teachers, and they correct them. In this way they can learn like children who go to school in the towns of Australia.
Games and Sports. About six million Australians are active in some kind of sport. Football is a very popular sport and a lot of families spend Saturday watching a match. Australians are very keen on cricket. Games like tennis and hockey are also very popular.
The Australian climate is suitable for activities like swimming, surfing and sailing. Many Australian families have boats, these can be small boats, large yachts, fishing boats and expensive power boats. Most families with a boat want to take part in the beginning of the Sydney to Hobart (in Tasmania) yacht race. Many families spend all weekend on their boats.
We would like to visiting this beautiful country.