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Effective teaching of business studies can be linked with the economic development of a country due to its unlimited, multiplier effects. In the present fast moving digital world, teaching of business demands acquaintance of latest teaching methods and techniques on the one hand and knowledge of global business activities on the other. In most of the developing countries, there is a gap between the methodology of teaching business studies and its application in the market.
Effective teaching of business studies can be linked with the economic development of a country due to its unlimited, multiplier effects. In the present fast moving digital world, teaching of business demands acquaintance of latest teaching methods and techniques on the one hand and knowledge of global business activities on the other. In most of the developing countries, there is a gap between the methodology of teaching business studies and its application in the market. The situation has been further deteriorated by the uncooperative behavior of business industries towards business education institutions. Effective teaching of business requires leadership qualities not only for better career counseling and development of students but also contributes to the resolution of business issues. Most of the teachers of business studies in such countries are deprived of good returns, recognition and growth opportunities in their field, resulting in low motivation and performance. To overcome these issues, a twofold strategy, comprising improvement of teaching methodology through concept development techniques and practical exposure of students to the business world and the development of research oriented environment for teachers with close liaisons with the business and industries is needed. Market is the best judge and its response would be the source of evaluation and modification for both the teacher and student.
In the present scenario of globalization and digital revolution, effective teaching of business studies is a challenge for teachers. However, it is expected that the suggested model and strategy will considerably help in understanding the issues and improving the standard and overall environment in business institutions in the developing countries in particular and the world in general.
The pivotal objective of teaching business studies at higher education level is enhancing and updating the knowledge and capabilities of students to meet the challenges of time. Method and style though vary from one discipline to another, theme remains the same. "Most of the contents, teachers are expected to learn in their professional development has been pre-packaged and standardized. However what works in one situation, does not necessarily work in other. Hence, it is very important that strategies be developed so that they cater for the specific needs of particular teachers (Diaz Maggioli, 2004). In the Faculty of Business Administration, effective teaching of business studies requires latest knowledge of the subject and teaching aids on the one hand and critical and analytical information of the local and global businesses and industries on the other. Besides, an individual's initiative and motivation, collaborative efforts from institution and industries are crucial to accomplish this task successfully. Today, teachers at higher business education must possess all managerial qualities of planning, influencing and controlling and should be so practical that, not only students but the business and industries depend on their intellectual and creative abilities for the resolution of their issues. Importance of practical knowledge of the global business and industries for teachers of business administration at higher education can also be justified by the fact that the latest editions of most of the prescribed and/or recommended business books are more a collection of practical examples and cases than the text. For instance, the 1 1 edition (2003) of the well known book of Marketing Management by Philip Kotier contains 410 practical examples from global business and industries, approximately covering 2/3 portion of the book. In short, today effective teaching of business studies requires not only the dissemination of concepts and text but also discussion on problems and opportunities of global business and industries to contribute to the resolution of the same.
METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF TEACHING BUSINESS STUDIES
Effective teaching of business studies requires some specific methods and techniques, which may not be emphasized in other disciplines. Considering the objectives of teaching business studies at undergraduate and graduate levels, knowledge of current issues in business organizations and industries, latest management practices and technological exploitation in management are imperative, besides conceptual and textual knowledge. Furthermore exposure of students to market and organization not only enables them to relate their knowledge with practical applications but also enhances confidence and professional communication skills considerably. To accomplish these objectives more effectively, most of the business education institutions have been considering case studies, questionnaire and debate & discussion as the integral part of their teaching. Although these methods and techniques have been successfully applied by many business institutions, a lot depends upon teacher's ability, overall environment of institution and the enthusiasm of student towards such activities.
An ethnographic research, based on both participant and non-participant observations, has been conducted to examine the challenges and issues pertaining to the teaching of business studies in Pakistan. A sample of two public universities and five private institutions holding undergraduate and graduate business classes (BBA/B.Com./MBA/M.Com) was taken randomly. In addition, interviews were also conducted with professors of business studies in Pakistan, India, UK and USA regarding challenges and issues in teaching of business studies in their respective environments. A Modular Approach has been designed on the basis of data so obtained to critically examine the various issues and challenges usually faced by professors in teaching business studies. The information was then categorized in two phases, i.e. Pre-Service and In-Service stages, creating considerable impact on teaching of business studies.
TEACHING OF BUSINESS STUDIES
Teaching of business studies is an ongoing process of acquiring, disseminating and executing knowledge to build a more constructive and useful new generation in particular and society and economy in general. Effective learning depends on how seriously the ideas and concepts are perceived and taught. Better understanding of ideas and concepts (knowledge) and its application enable learners to be more beneficial for mankind.
The effectiveness of the model of teaching business studies (Figure - 1) largely depends upon the effort and ability of both the instructor and learner. Instructor's qualification and experience are to some extent prerequisites, much depends upon his sincere endeavor, ability and technique used for transferring his knowledge to others. In addition, studious behavior along with certain level of grasping power and effort of learner are imperative to make the communication process more effective. The importance of this stage of the model can be understood by the fact that any distortion may result in absolute failure of the whole process.
Conversion of basic concepts and application (knowledge), acquired in the first phase of the model, into professional skills needs support from internal and external sources, i.e. the institution and industry respectively. This is crucial, because lack of consideration and cooperation of these organizations with the instructor or learner and ineffective coordination between them will hamper the process substantially. Encouraging attitude of the colleagues, especially of seniors, conducive environment and accessibility of basic facilities are prerequisites for development of professional skills. Furthermore, cooperation of industries in sharing practical experiences (application of concepts) and use of latest technology play a key role in this context. Adequate support from institution and cooperation of industries will help building more professional, confident and creative personnel. It is important to note that the pace of professionalism also depends upon the objective and motivation of the learner and his / her perception about the outcome (positive, neutral or negative) of their efforts.
The 21st century has come up with the slogan of specialization, standardization and professionalism in every field. Effective teaching of business studies in the present scenario of globalization is therefore a multiphase, long term process which has its roots in professional education system. Effectiveness in teaching is not something that can be acquired at once, it is achieved gradually with the passage of time. At higher education, professionalism in teaching of business studies needs to be addressed at the following two stages:
The impact of these stages in effective teaching of business studies are described below:
CHALLENGES AND ISSUES ENCOUNTERED WITH TEACHING OF BUSINESS STUDIES
The study reveals an unsatisfactory situation in various aspects of teaching of business studies in Pakistan & India in particular and developing countries in general. In some cases, teachers even do not possess the basic conceptual and practical knowledge required at that level. This is mainly due to inadequate teaching methodology and examination system at the pre-service education stage. Creation of new ideas and effective dissemination of knowledge to students are, therefore difficult tasks for them. In most of the cases, research students and young teachers are unable to acquire useful guidance and continuous professional development due to acute shortage of good supervisors. Although rate of Ph.Ds produced worldwide during the past five years is encouraging, research scholars in the field of business administration are still comparatively less than other fields.
Furthermore, the overall environment in most of the business institutions in Pakistan in particular and developing countries in general has been quite discouraging. In some cases, even the basic facilities like separate room, computer, internet and specialized journals and magazines are not provided. Many institutions do not have specific program and procedures for professional development of their teachers, resulting in limited theoretical knowledge, even after gaining reasonable experience. Behavior of most of the organizations towards higher education institutions (teachers and students) has been highly disparaging. In this scenario, sharing of practical knowledge and cooperation in research and case studies are next to impossible.
Professional development of teachers at higher education is a topic which deserves immediate attention. It has many dimensions for discussion and debate. Teaching of business studies, itself is a process of learning and professional development. If it is planned specifically with the objective of enhancing and updating knowledge, it gives tremendous results in the form of professional development for the teacher and students in particular and the society in general.
Diaz Maggioii,G (2004) A Passion for Learning: Teacher-Centered Professional Development, IATEFL 2005 Conferance Alexandria, VA; ASCD
Habeshaw, T. Habeshaw, S. and Gibbs, G. 53 Interesting things to do in your Seminars, Bristol: Technical and Educational Services, 1992.
Ian Marcouse, David Lines Business Case Studies Longman Group UK Limited, 1990, p. 10
Challenges in Teaching Business Studies
The Business Review, Cambridge
Number of pages
Journal of American Academy of Business
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