Classical and contemporary view of management

Автор работы: Пользователь скрыл имя, 29 Ноября 2012 в 17:49, реферат

Описание работы

Работа содержит описание Классического и современного менеджмента на английском языке.
Эта работа containы некоторые аспекты классической и современной зрения управления. Я постараюсь, чтобы покрыть такие термины, как типа управления, преимущества и недостатки обеих структуры, доказать это слово известных специалистов. В качестве доказательства я покажу моего собственного опыта с использованием классических и современных типов управления. Для того чтобы понять некоторые аспекты управления я использовал произведения следующих авторов:
Фредерик У. Тейлор (1856 - 1915)
Анри Файоль (1841 -1925)
Макс Вебер (1864 - 1920)

Содержание работы


Классическая управления

Научно типа
Бюрократический тип
Административные типа

Современные / Современные зрения управления

Собственный опыт


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International Information Technology University






Classical and contemporary view of management











Prepared by: Nutgaliyev ALimzhan

   Group: ITM - 101



  1. Introduction


  1. Classical management


      1. Scientific type
      2. Bureaucratic type
      3. Administrative type


  1. Modern/ Contemporary view of management



  1. Own experience


  1. Conclusion














        1. Introduction:

This work containы several aspects of classical and contemporary view of management. I’ll try to cover such terms like types of management, advantages and disadvantages of the both structure, prove it by word of famous specialists. As evidence I’ll show my own experience by using classical and contemporary types of management. To understand several aspects of management I used works of following authors:

Frederick W. Taylor (1856 - 1915)

Henri Fayol (1841 -1925)

Max Weber (1864 – 1920)


















2. Classical management

First part of my work will consist of definition and detailed plan classical management. Classical management was used till 21 century, a lot of bright examples of classical management such as USSR, Cuba, North Korea. But nowadays such system is not more actual, because philosophy and ideology is totally changed, and every has each individuality. But let consider this type of management. This structure consist of three main parts: 

1. Scientific management

2. Bureaucratic management

3. Administrative management


     2.1 Scientific management:

Scientific management is represented as specific method that realized just one way of doing the job.

The founder of the scientific management is Frederick Taylor.  Main work of Tyler was directed to the Bethlehem Steel companies where he motivated to improve efficiency.

There several ideas of Tyler teaching:

  1. He thought to create a whole guideline system of thinking, something like mental revolution among both classes management and workers. This activity was directed to increase efficiency of the business process.
  2. How you know the most widely spread experiment of the classical management is “Pig Iron”.
  3. As the result he achieved increase in productivity more than 200%. He affirmed the role of managers, make their workers ore instructed and controlled by managers.

Taylor’s Four Principles of Scientific management:

  1. Work on each part of the task, and create individual method to achieve the best results.
  2. Look at your work staff. Select and train them to perform a goal by using this method of management.
  3. Work with your subordinate, control their work and take to the account their comments according business process.
  4. Delegate duties, and responsibilities for planning and creating method using such type of management, also workers will be able to executing the work accordingly.


2.1 Bureaucratic management

Bureaucracy from French means desk or office, it is division of labor proved by administration.  A lot of assessments, written documents, committees, but in facts they do not rule in their own right, like monarchy, aristocracy or another form of ruling.

According to Max Weber, main changes took place in capitalistic period, during technical revolution. Capitalism is a way of rationalization, calculation how fast inputs will turn over to the outputs. Main idea was to maximize output by minimization inputs.

While studying new innovations in Germany in the late 20th, Max Weber selected central elements of such new form of organization. He characterized the idela bureaucracy by impersonality, efficiency and rationality. Key factor were authority of official bodies, all actions, orders and acts were done only after assessment of such body.

Structure of this organizational type is strong and strict hierarchy where each level controlled and supervised by the above one. Each level has own duties and right, responsibilities are clearly identified.

Max Weber believed that it would be the best type of organizational structure, however he considered that  bureaucracies structure has a lot of same aspects like all organizational types, and in future it will be the same, which in turn could lead to the development of a new class of worker, the professional bureaucrat.

According Max Weber there are following specific characteristics of bureaucratic type:

  1. Principle of constant jurisdictional areas which controlled by orders, rules, and administrative tasks.
  2. Office hierarchy and level of graded officials body implies strict system of subordination where supervision of the lower workers by the highest one. In such conditions the office hierarchy is monocratically organized.
  3. Such management for example of modern office founded upon written documents, which are structured in original or draught form. The body of officials actively engaged in a 'public' office, along with the respective apparatus of material implements and the files, make up a 'bureau.' In private enterprise, 'the bureau' is often called 'the office.
  4. When the office is fully developed, official activity demands the full working capacity of the official, irrespective of the fact that his obligatory time in the bureau may be firmly delimited. In the normal case, this is only the product of a long development, in the public as well as in the private office. Formerly, in all cases, the normal state of affairs was reversed: official business was discharged as a secondary activity.
  5. The management of the office follows general rules, which are more or less stable, more or less exhaustive, and which can be learned. Knowledge of these rules represents a special technical learning which the officials possess. It involves jurisprudence, or administrative or business management.


2.3 Administrative management

Following writers focused on the whole organization. The founders of the administrative theory are Max Webber and Henri Fayol.

  1. Fayol represented his theory at the same time with Taylor. Fayol was a manager of French industrial, Manufacture Company.
  2. He focused on the practice of management as distinct from other organizational structures.
  3. Max Weber – developed a authority structured system based on subordinate relationships.
  4. He represented the perfect form of stricture – bureaucracy, defined as a form of organization marked by division of labor, a clearly defined hierarchy, detailed rules and regulations.


The Administrative Management

It is a term used for those early-day contributors who developed and taught principles to be used by managers, both individually and collectively, to improve the performance of the overall functions of the organization.


  1. Division of work

Specialization increases output by making employees more efficient.

  1. Authority.

Managers must be able to give order. Authority gives them this right. Along with authority, however, goes responsibility.

  1. Discipline.

Employees must obey and respect the rules that govern the organization.

  1. Unity of Command

An employee should receive orders from one superior only.

  1. Unity of direction.

The organization should have a single plan of action to guide managers and workers.

  1. Subordination of individual interests to the general interest.

The interests of any one employee or group of employees should not take precedence over the interests of the organization as a whole.

  1. Remuneration .

Workers must be paid a fair wage for their services.

  1. Centralization.

This term refers to the degree to which subordinates are involved in decision making.

  1. Scalar Chain .

The line term refers to the degree to which subordinates are involved I decision making.

  1. Order .

People and materials should be in the right place at the right time.

  1. Equity .

Managers should be kind and fair to their subordinates.

  1. Stability of tenure of personnel


Management should provide orderly personnel planning and ensure that replacements are available to fill vacancies.

  1. Initiative.

Employees who are allowed to originate and carry out plans will exert high levels of effort.

  1. Esprit de corps Division of work

Specialization increases output by making employees more efficient.


















3. Contemporary view of management.


The rationality of modern age is still actual.

Post-modern, post – soviet organizations show relic of the modern age.  All issues are solved on the knowledge foundation. Max Weber, father of bureaucracy, predicted that today’s manager trapped himself to iron cage called – rationality.  All organizations held bureaucratic style of managing. Goal – oriented, where was efficiency and ranking of results. very strong delegation of duties, controlled by supervision. Without head company couldn't exist.


Previous generation satisfied with this type of living, but for the coming society, new kinds of management and organization are needed. In order to understand the importance of the change, although we tend to become prisoners of the past, we should know both modern and postmodern policies.


If we consider on management today – a big mess.

Cardinally changes in policies and procedures were very fast and complicated. Companies started to invest on innovation, new ideas, on young people, and this process were successful because leadership leads by innovation.  New way of management represents a network of experience and staff areresponsible for their own actions and consequences. Such term like brain storm, different viewpoints, open talk are  likely to open new ideas and new meetings.  Implementation of tacit knowledge and networking of organizations are emphasized.


But new point of thinking was successful, a surrender of the iron cage of rationality of the modern time cannot be considered evident. From time to time, the talk on management has rather returned to the old thinking. Profit management emphasizes today’s straight forward thinking that accentuates measurability but despises differences. Even quality management has occasionally strongly supported these ideas.

Our society is on the edge of new idea thinking and old vision. Old vision mixed new values. In this fight of post-soviet ideology, and new innovative creative thinking we faced with risk of losing all values from both sides.

4. My own experience

To be honest, it is the most difficult to choose what type of management. From one side it is my first experience, from another my level of degree, form another my age. But I have destination, my supervisor set up goals to be achieved, and I have to do it. But the main question that I faced how to make job more efficient?

First step to understand all business process, if I set direction to my subordinates, I have to be an expert in the job that I’m doing.  First week before starting business process, I’ve read a lot of guidelines according project Zhasa. Try first experience with meeting, and contract dealing. Make my first mistakes and successes. According these features I can to direct my staff on right direction.

First type of management was more modern, like free-friendship relationship. It was the most big mistake that I’ve done, and  consequences are till nowadays. Yes I broke up an ice between us, but they understand that they can argue with me, come late to the job; thesis was he young, our friend and he will understand. Disrespect and horizontal communications. If they have some question, they ask it to my supervisor.

To fix the situation, I’ve used classical bureaucratic method. Every morning status and strict conversation about disadvantages of the work process. To be impressive, I used HR tactic, after meeting, call to the partner where was subordinate and ask of feedback about meeting. Hat I’ve received after such actions – by every issue, or problem that occurs they call me and asks, it makes me interrupt. They couldn’t solve their problems and issues, so I’ve done not only my job but also their to.

Third step was to set a balance style of management.  More conversations about business process, discussion about unknown situations, less but more proper checking of quality of the meetings.  The result I thing is good, they do own job, if there is very difficult question they asks. but nobody bothers my supervision.








At the conclusion I want to notice that how I understand there is no ideal type of management, leader has to be situational leadership. We couldn’t through to the waste all experience that we received during very long period. But leadership is very close to innovation, and to make business process more effective me have to combine all types of management and create individual  approach to subordinates.










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