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The topicality of the theme of this course paper is determined by policy of Barack Obama, which is very important for students studying foreign languages, especially English and also to be qualified teachers. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that Barack Obama is the first African-American president of the United States. He became president at a difficult time for America (in times of crisis). The course paper consists of 2 parts. Chapter 1 describes life of Barack Obama. In chapter 2 attention is given to policy pursued by Barack Obama.
Table of Contents IТRODUCTION 2 Chapter 1: Barack Obama 4 1.1 Barack Obama: Breaking New Ground 4 1.2 The Early Years 6 1.3 Called to Public Service 7 1.4 The National Stage 9 1.5 Running for President 11 1.6 An Obama Presidency 13 1.7 Barack Obama’s Vision for the Future 15 Chapter 2: POLICY OF BARACK OBAMA 17 2.1 First days 17 2.2 Domestic policy 18 2.2.1 Economic policy 20 2.2.2 Health care reform 22 2.2.3 Gulf of Mexico oil spill 24 2.2.4Gun control 24 2.3 2010 midterm election 25 2.4 Foreign policy 26 2.4.1 Iraq War 27 2.4.2 War in Afghanistan 27 2.4.3 Israel 28 2.4.4 War in Libya 28 2.4.5 Osama bin Laden 29 Conclusion 30 Bibliography 31
Barack H. Obama is the 44th President of the United
His story is the American story — values from the
heartland, a middle-class upbringing in a strong family, hard work and
education as the means of getting ahead, and the conviction that a life
so blessed should be lived in service to others.
With a father from Kenya and a mother from Kansas,
President Obama was born in Hawaii on August 4, 1961. He was raised
with help from his grandfather, who served in Patton's army, and his
grandmother, who worked her way up from the secretarial pool to middle
management at a bank.
After working his way through college with the help
of scholarships and student loans, President Obama moved to Chicago,
where he worked with a group of churches to help rebuild communities
devastated by the closure of local steel plants.
He went on to attend law school, where he became
the first African-American president of the Harvard Law Review. Upon
graduation, he returned to Chicago to help lead a voter registration
drive, teach constitutional law at the University of Chicago, and remain
active in his community.
President Obama's years of public service are based
around his unwavering belief in the ability to unite people around a
politics of purpose. In the Illinois State Senate, he passed the first
major ethics reform in 25 years, cut taxes for working families, and
expanded health care for children and their parents. As a United States
Senator, he reached across the aisle to pass groundbreaking lobbying
reform, lock up the world's most dangerous weapons, and bring transparency
to government by putting federal spending online.
He was elected the 44th President of the United States
on November 4, 2008, and sworn in on January 20, 2009. He and his wife,
Michelle, are the proud parents of two daughters, Malia, 14, and Sasha,
The course paper is devoted to the problems of policy
of Barack Obama. The subject of the study is policy. The object of the
research is life of Barack Obama, the 44th President of the United States.
The main purpose of the course paper is consider,
domestic and foreign policies of Barack Obama. The following objectives
are set up research the information about his life.
The topicality of the theme of this course paper
is determined by policy of Barack Obama, which is very important for
students studying foreign languages, especially English and also to
be qualified teachers.
The novelty of the research lies in the fact that
Barack Obama is the first African-American president of the United States.
He became president at a difficult time for America (in times of crisis).
The course paper consists of 2 parts. Chapter 1 describes
life of Barack Obama. In chapter 2 attention is given to policy pursued
by Barack Obama.
Chapter 1: Barack Obama
1.1 Barack Obama: Breaking New Ground
The Democratic candidate for
president brings youth, eloquence, and a compelling personal history
to the 2008 campaign. Obama captured his party’s nomination by advocating
change in U.S. policy, both foreign and domestic.
Freelance writer Domenick DiPasquale
is a former foreign service officer who served in Ghama, Kenya, Brazil,
Bosnia, Singapore, and Slovenia.
Barack Obama’s unique biography and successful
campaign for the 2008 Democratic presidential nomination have opened
a new chapter in U.S. politics.
Obama, the first African-American presidential candidate
to win the nomination of a major U.S. political party, brings a life
story unlike that of any previous nominee. The biracial son of a Kenyan
father and a white mother from the American heartland, Obama shot to
national prominence with his well-received keynote speech at the Democratic
National Convention in 2004, the same year he was elected to the U.S.
Senate from the state of Illinois. Just four years later, he rose to
the top of a field crowded with Democratic heavyweights to clinch his
party’s nomination for the White House.
With a polished speaking style, a command of eloquent
and uplifting rhetoric, the ability to inspire the enthusiasm of young
voters, and the sophisticated use of the Internet as a campaign tool,
Obama is very much a 21st-century candidate.
Yet he has demonstrated the timeless skills common to all campaigns,
including the ability to effectively wage old-fashioned political trench
warfare as he ground through a long and sometimes divisive five-month
primary season to defeat his chief opponent, Senator Hillary Rodham
In his campaign, Obama stressed two overarching themes:
changing Washington’s traditional way of conducting the nation’s
business and invoking Americans of diverse ideological, social, and
racial backgrounds to unite for the common good.
“There’s not a liberal America and a conservative
America – there’s The United States of America”, Obama said in
his address to the 2004 Democratic National Convention. “There’s
not a black America and white America and Latino America and Asian America;
there’s the United States of America. … We are one people, all of
us pledging allegiance to the Stars and Stripes, all of us defending
the United States of America.”
1.2 The Early Years
Obama’s parents came from vastly different backgrounds.
His mother, Ann Dunham, was born and raised in small-town Kansas. After
her family moved to the Hawaiian Islands, she met Barack Obama Sr.,
a Kenyan scholarship student enrolled at the University of Hawaii. The
two married in 1959, and on August 4, 1961, Barack Obama Jr. was born
in Honolulu. Two years later the senior Obama left his new family, first
for graduate study at Harvard and then for a job as a government economist
back in Kenya. The young Obama met his father again only once, at age
When Obama was six, his mother remarried, this time
to an Indonesian oil executive. The family moved to Indonesia, and Obama
spent four years attending school in the capital city of Jakarta. He
eventually returned to Hawaii and went to high school there while living
with his maternal grandparents.
In his first book, Dreams From My Father,
Obama describes this period of his life as having more than the usual
share of adolescent turmoil, as he struggled to make sense of a biracial
heritage then still relatively uncommon in the United States. Being
rooted in both black culture and white culture may have helped give
Obama the expansive vision he brought to politics years later, one that
understands both points of view.
“Barack has an incredible ability to synthesize
seemingly contradictory realities and make them coherent,” his law
school classmate Cassandra Butts told New Yorker magazine writer
Larissa MacFarquhar. “It comes from going from a home where white
people are nurturing you, and then you go out into the world and you’re
seen as a black person.”
Obama left Hawaii once more to attend Occidental
College in Los Angles for two years. He later moved to New York City
and earned a bachelor of arts degree from Columbia University in 1983.
In a commencement address, Obama described his thinking at that time:
“… by the time I graduated from college, I was possessed with a
crazy idea – that I would work at a grassroots level to bring about
1.3 Called to Public Service
In search of his identity and a purposeful direction
in life, Obama subsequently left his job as a financial writer with
an international consulting firm in New York and headed to Chicago in
1985. There, he worked as a community organizer for a coalition of local
churches on the city’s South Side, a poor African-American area hard
hit by the transition from a manufacturing center to a service-based
“It was in these neighborhoods that I received
the best education I ever had, and where I learned the true meaning
of my Christian faith,” Obama recounted years later in the speech
announcing his presidential candidacy.
Obama enjoyed some tangible successes in this work,
giving South Side residents a voice in such issues as economic redevelopment,
job training, and environmental clean-up efforts. He viewed his primary
role as a community organizer, however, as that of a catalyst mobilizing
ordinary citizens in a bottom-up effort to forge indigenous strategies
for political and economic empowerment.
After three years of such work, Obama concluded that
to bring about true improvement in such distressed communities required
involvement at a higher level, in the realm of law and politics. Accordingly,
he attended Harvard Law School, where he distinguished himself by being
elected the first black president of the prestigious Harvard Law Review and
graduating magna cum laude in 1991.
With these credentials, “Obama could have done
anything he wanted,” noted David Axelrod, now his presidential campaign
strategist. Obama returned to his adopted hometown of Chicago, where
he practiced civil rights law and taught constitutional law at the University
of Chicago. In 1992 he married Michelle Robinson, another Harvard Law
graduate, and worked on voter registration in Chicago to help Democratic
candidates such as Bill Clinton.
With a continuing strong commitment to public service,
Obama decided to make his first run at elective office in 1996, winning
a seat from Chicago in the Illinois state senate. In many ways the race
was a logical progression of his earlier work as a community organizer,
and Obama brought much of that same expansive outlook – the politician
as an enabler of citizen-directed grassroots efforts and a builder of
broad –based coalitions – to his vision of politics.
“Any African Americans who are only talking about
racism as a barrier to our success are seriously misled if they don’t
also come to grips with the larger economic forces that are creating
economic insecurity for all workers – whites, Latinos, and Asians,”
he said at the time . Among his legislative accomplishments over the
next eight years in the state senate were campaign finance reform, tax
cuts for the working poor, and improvements to the state’s criminal
1.4 The National Stage
In 2000 Obama made his first run for the U.S. Congress,
unsuccessfully challenging Bobby Rush, an incumbent Democrat from Chicago,
for Rush’s seat in the House of Representatives. Dispirited by his
lopsided primary loss to Rush and searching for influence beyond the
Illinois state legislature, he sold Michelle on the idea of his running
for the U.S. Senate in a last-shot “up or out strategy” to advance
his political career.
The 2004 U.S. Senate race in Illinois had turned
into a free-for-all the year before, when the Republican incumbent,
Peter Fitzgerald, announced he would not seek reelection. Seven Democrats
and eight Republicans contested their respective party’s primary for
the senatorial nomination. Obama easily captured the Democratic nomination,
winning a greater share of the vote – 53 percent – than his six
With the Republicans then holding the 100-member
U.S. Senate by a razor-thin majority of 51 seats, Democrats saw the
senatorial contest in Illinois as critical to their chances of retaking
the Senate that November (in fact, they only regained control in 2006).
The desire to give Obama’s campaign a boost through a prominent role,
the well-known oratory skills Obama possessed, and the very favorable
impression he already had made on Democratic presidential candidate
John Kerry clinched the decision to select Obama as the convention’s
Obama’s speech, with its soaring, polished language
on the need to transcend partisan divisions and its call for a “politics
of hope” rather than a politics of cynicism, did more than rouse convention-goers;
it catapulted Obama into the national media spotlight as a rising star
of the Democratic Party. He went on to win handily in the Senate race
that autumn, capturing an overwhelming 70 percent of the popular vote.
Although the near-total disarray that year among Republicans in Illinois
undoubtedly contributed to the landslide margin, Obama’s victory was
impressive in its own right, as he won in 93 of the state’s 102 counties
and captured white voters by better than a two-to-one margin.
Obama’s reputation as a new breed of politician,
one able to overcome traditional racial divides grew steadily. In a New Yorker profile of
Obama, writer William Finnegan, nothing Obama’s talent at “slipping
subtly into the idiom of his interlocutor,’’ said Obama “speaks
a full range of American vernaculars.” Obama offered his own explanation
why he could connect with white voters.
“I know these people,” he said. “Those are
my grandparents. … Their manners, their sensibilities, their sense
of right and wrong – it’s all totally familiar to me.”
In the Senate, Obama amassed a voting record in line
with that of the Democratic Party’s liberal wing. His criticism of
the war in Iraq has been one of his trademarks, dating back to a speech
in 2002, even before the war started, when he warned that any such military
action would be based “not on principle but on politics .” He also
has worked to strengthen ethical standards in Congress, improve care
for military veterans, and increase use of renewable fuels.
1.5 Running for President
The long Democratic primary election campaign of
2008, with elections or caucuses in all 50 states, was historic in several
ways. African-American and women candidates had run for the presidency
before, but this time the two front-runners were a woman and an African
American. As Obama and seven other contenders for the Democratic presidential
nomination began to organize in 2007, opinion polls consistently put
Obama in second place behind the presumed favorite, New York Senator
Hillary Clinton. Obama, however, was highly successful in this early
stage of the race at enlisting an enthusiastic cadre of supporters,
especially among youth, establishing a nationwide grassroots campaign
organization, and fundraising through the Internet.
With Clinton enjoying greater name recognition, a
well-oiled campaign machine, and support at the state level leading
Democrats, the Obama camp devised an innovative strategy to negate these
advantages: targeting states that used causes rather than primaries
to select delegates and focusing on smaller states that traditionally
voted Republican in the general election. This approach capitalized
on the Democratic Party’s system of proportional representation –
awarding convention delegates in each state in rough proportion to a
candidate’s share of the vote – as opposed to the Republican’s
system of awarding most or all convention delegates to the winner in
The strategy paid off with the first-in-the-nation
Iowa causes on January 3, 2008, when Obama scored an upset victory over
Clinton. The Iowa win was a game-changer; as the Washington Post put it,
“Beating Clinton … altered the course of the race by establishing
Obama as her chief rival – the only candidate with the message, organizational
muscle, and financial resources to challenge her front-runner status.”
It paid off once more on “Super Tuesday”
– the elections held simultaneously in 22 states on February 5 –
when Obama dueled Clinton to a tie and swept rural states in the West
and South. And it paid off yet again when Obama went on to win 10 more
consecutive contests in February, cementing a lead in delegates Clinton
never again could catch.
Finally, on June 3, exactly five months after the
contest began, the exhausting race was over. The combination of a victory
in Montana and growing support from previously uncommitted super-delegates
gave Obama the majority of delegates needed to clinch the presidential
“Because you chose not to listen to your doubts
or your fears but to your greatest hopes and highest aspirations,”
Obama told supporters that evening at a victory rally in St. Paul, Minnesota,
“tonight we mark the end of one historic journey with the beginning
1.6 An Obama Presidency
If elected, Obama would be one of the youngest presidents.
Born at the tail end of the 1946-1964 baby boom generation, he also
would be the first president to have come of age in the 1980s, which
of itself might portend change. The atmosphere in which he grew up was
markedly different from the socially tumultuous 1960s that shaped earlier
baby boomer’s outlook. As Obama once said about the 2000 and 2004
presidential elections, contested by candidates from a much earlier
cohort of that postwar generation, “I sometimes felt as if I were
watching the psychodrama of the baby boom generation – a tale rooted
in old grudges and revenge plots hatched on a handful of college campuses
long ago – played out on the national stage.”
Obama’s “Change We Can Believe In” and “Change
We Need” slogans reflect his campaign’s emphasis on taking the United
States in a new direction. Obama has advocated a steady timetable for
withdrawing U.S. combat troops from Iraq, although he would leave some
for training and antiterrorism missions. Other foreign policy positions
include increasing U.S. military and development assistance to Afghanistan,
closing the Guantanamo Bay prison for terrorism detainees, and strengthening
nuclear nonproliferation efforts. Domestically, Obama wants to invest
150 billion dollars over 10 years to spur development of clean energy
technology, increase investment in education and infrastructure to make
the U.S. economy more globally competitive, and restore fiscal discipline
to government spending.
The New Yorker’s Larissa
MacFarquhar offered one theory on Obama’s noticeable appeal across
traditional political lines. “Obama’s voting record is one of the
most liberal in the Senate,” she observed, “but he has always appealed
to Republicans, perhaps because he speaks about liberal goals in conservative
“In his view of history, in his respect for tradition,
in his skepticism that the world can be changed any way but very, very
slowly,” she wrote, “Obama is deeply conservative.
Win or lose in November, Obama has broken new ground
in U.S. politics. His candidacy came at precisely the time when many
Americans believed their country needed a fundamental transformation
in its direction. Washington Post political
columnist E.J. Dionne may have summed up perfectly the serendipitous
confluence between Obama’s candidacy and the American zeitgeist when
Change, not experience, was the order of the day.
Sweep, not a mastery of detail, was the virtue most valued in campaign
oratory. A clean break with the past, not merely a return to better
days, was the promise most prized.
1.7 Barack Obama’s
Vision for the Future
Excerpts from “The American
Moment,” Remarks to the Chicago Council on Global Affairs, April 23,
I believe that the single most important job of any
President is to protect the American people. And I am equally convinced
that doing that job effectively in the 21st century will require
a new vision of American leadership and a new conception of our national
security – a vision that draws from the lessons of the past, but is
not bound by outdated thinking.
In today’s globalized world, the security of the
American people is inextricably linked to the security of all people.
When narco-trafficking and corruption threaten democracy in Latin America,
it’s America’s problem too. When poor villagers in Indonesia have
no choice but to send chickens to market infected with avian flu, it
cannot be seen as a distant concern. When religious schools in Pakistan
teach hatred to young children, our children are threatened as well.
Whether it’s global terrorism or pandemic disease,
dramatic climate change or the proliferation of weapons of mass annihilation,
the threats we face at the dawn of the 21st century can no
longer be contained by borders and boundaries.
Many Americans may find it tempting to turn inward,
and cede our claim of leader-ship in world affairs.
I insist, however, that such an abandonment of our
leadership is a mistake we must not make. America cannot meet the threats
of this century alone, but the world cannot meet them without America.
We must neither retreat from the world not try bully it into submission
– we must lead the world, by deed and example.
We must lead by building a 21st century military
to ensure the security of our people and advance the security of all
people. We must lead by marshaling a global effort to stop the spread
of the world’s most dangerous weapons. We must lead by building and
strengthening the partnerships and all lances necessary to meet our
common challenges and defeat our common threats.
And America must lead by reaching out to all those
living disconnected lives of despair in the world’s forgotten corners
– because while there will always be those who succumb to hate and
strap bombs to their bodies, there are millions more who want to take
another patch – who want our beacon of hope to shine its light their
America is the country that helped liberate a continent
from the march of a madman. We are the country that told the brave people
of a divided city that we were Berliners too. We sent generations of
young people to serve as ambassadors for peace in countries all over
the world. And we’re the country that rushed aid throughout Asia for
the victims of a devastating tsunami.
Now it’s our moment to lead – our generation’s
time to tell another great American story. So someday we can tell our
children that this was the time when we helped forge peace in the Middle
East. That this was the time when we confronted climate change and secured
the weapons that could destroy the human race. This was the time when
we brought opportunity to those forgotten corners of the world. And
this was the time when we renewed the America that has led generations
of weary travelers from all over the world to find opportunity, and
liberty, and hope on our doorstep.
Chapter 2: POLICY OF BARACK OBAMA
2.1 First days
The inauguration of Barack Obama as the 44th President
took place on January 20, 2009. In his first few days in office, Obama
issued executive orders and presidential memoranda directing the U.S.
military to develop plans to withdraw troops from Iraq. He ordered the
closing of the Guantanamo Bay detention camp, but Congress prevented
the closure by refusing to appropriate the required funds and preventing
moving any Guantanamo detainee into the U.S. or to other countries.
Obama reduced the secrecy given to presidential records. He also revoked
President George W. Bush's restoration of President Ronald Reagan's
Mexico City Policy prohibiting federal aid to international family planning
organizations that perform or provide counseling about abortion.
2.2 Domestic policy
The first bill signed into law by Obama was the Lilly
Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009, relaxing the statute of limitations
for equal-pay lawsuits. Five days later, he signed the reauthorization
of the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) to cover an
additional 4 million uninsured children. In March 2009, Obama reversed
a Bush-era policy which had limited funding of embryonic stem cell research
and pledged to develop "strict guidelines" on the research.